GENEVA (ILO News) – Fifty million people were living in modern slavery within 2021, according to the latest Global Estimates of Modern Slavery . Of these individuals, 28 million were in forced labour and 22 million had been trapped within forced marriage.
The number of people in contemporary slavery has risen significantly in the last five years. 10 million more people were in modern captivity in 2021 compared to 2016 global estimates. Women and children remain disproportionately vulnerable.
Modern slavery occurs in almost every country in the world, and cuts across ethnic, cultural and religious lines. More than half (52 per cent) of all forced labour and a quarter of all forced marriages can be found within upper-middle income or high-income countries.
Most cases associated with forced work (86 for each cent) are found in the private sector. Forced work in sectors other than commercial sexual exploitation accounts for 63 per cent of most forced labour, while forced commercial sexual exploitation represents 23 per cent of all pushed labour. Almost four out of five of those in required commercial sex exploitation are usually women or girls.
State-imposed forced time accounts for 14 per cent of people in obligated labour.
Almost one in eight of all those in forced labour are kids (3. 3 million). A lot more than fifty percent of these are within commercial lovemaking exploitation.
An estimated twenty two million individuals were residing in forced marriage on any given day in 2021. This indicates an increase of 6. 6 mil since the 2016 global estimations.
The true incidence of pressured marriage, particularly involving children aged 16 and younger, is likely far greater compared to current quotes can capture; these are based on a narrow definition and do not include all child marriages. Child marriages are usually considered to be forced because a child cannot legally give consent to marry.
Forced marriage is closely linked in order to long-established patriarchal attitudes plus practices and is highly context specific. The overwhelming majority associated with forced relationships (more than 85 for each cent) was driven by family pressure. Although two-thirds (65 per cent) of forced marriages are found within Asia and the Pacific, when regional population size is considered, the particular prevalence is highest within the Arab States, with 4. 8 individuals out associated with every 1, 000 in the region in compelled marriage.
Migrants particularly vulnerable to forced labour
Migrant workers are a lot more than three times more likely to be within forced work than non-migrant adult workers. While labour migration has a largely positive effect on individuals, households, communities plus societies, this finding demonstrates how migrants are especially vulnerable to forced time and trafficking, whether because of irregular or poorly governed migration, or unfair and unethical recruitment practices.
“It will be shocking that the situation of modern slavery is not improving. Nothing can justify the persistence of this particular fundamental abuse of human rights, ” said ILO Director-General, Guy Ryder. “We know what needs to be done, and we know it can end up being done. Effective national policies and regulation are fundamental. But governments cannot do this alone. International standards provide a sound basis, and an all-hands-on-deck approach is needed. Trade unions, employers’ organizations, civil society and ordinary people almost all have critical roles to play. ”
António Vitorino, IOM Director-General, said: “This report underscores the urgency of ensuring that all migration is safe, orderly, and regular. Reducing the vulnerability of migrants in order to forced labour and trafficking in persons depends first and foremost on national policy plus legal frameworks that respect, protect, and fulfil the particular human rights and basic freedoms of migrants – and potential migrants – at just about all stages associated with the immigration process, regardless of their migration status. The whole of community must work together to reverse these shocking trends, including through implementation of the Global Compact on Migration. ”
Grace Forrest, Founding Director of Walk Free, said: “Modern slavery is the antithesis of sustainable development. Yet, in 2022, it continues to underpin our global economy. It is a man-made problem, connected to both historical slavery plus persisting structural inequality. In a time of compounding crises, genuine political will is the key in order to ending these human privileges abuses. ”
Ending modern captivity
The report proposes the number of recommended actions which, taken together and swiftly, would mark significant progress towards ending modern slavery. They include: improving and enforcing laws plus labour inspections; ending state-imposed forced work; stronger measures to combat forced work and trafficking in business and supply chains; extending social protection, and strengthening legal protections, which includes raising the particular legal age of relationship to 18 without exception. Other steps include addressing the increased risk associated with trafficking plus forced labour for migrant workers, promoting fair and ethical recruitment, and greater support with regard to women, girls and vulnerable individuals.
Notes to editors
Modern slavery, as defined for the report, is usually comprised of two principal components – forced labour plus forced marriage. Both refer to situations of exploitation that a person are not able to refuse or even cannot leave because of threats, violence, coercion, deception, or abuse of power. Forced labour, as defined in the ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) , refers to “all work or service which is definitely exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the particular said person has not offered himself voluntarily”. The ‘private economy’ includes all forms of pushed labour other than state-imposed pressured labour.
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